Numerical simulations of n–heptane spray in high pressure and temperature environments

  • Wojciech Smuga Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering
  • Lukasz Jan Kapusta Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering
  • Andrzej Teodorczyk Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering


In this study n-heptane spray in supercritical environments was simulated using commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic)software AVL Fire. The numerical results were analyzed in terms of global spray parameter, and spray penetration.The results obtained were compared with experimental data available at Sandia National Laboratories. N-heptane spray simulationswere performed in the same conditions as in the Sandia experiments. The goal of the study was to assess whetherthe Lagrangian approach performs well in engine relevant conditions in terms of spray global parameters. Not included inthis assessment was the influence of supercritical mixing on liquid-gas interphase. The major element was the potential forpractical application of the commercial CFD code in terms of properly representing global spray parameters and thus mixtureformation in supercritical conditions, which is one of the core aspects in whole engine process simulation. The key part ofthe study was mesh optimization. Therefore, the influence of mesh density on both the accuracy of calculations and thecalculation time was determined, taking into consideration detailed experimental data as initial conditions for the subsequentcalculations. This served as a basis to select the optimal mesh with regard to both accuracy of the results obtained and timeduration of the calculations. As a determinant of accuracy, the difference within a range of evaporated fuel stream was used.Using selected mesh the set of numerical calculations were performed and the results were compared with experimental onestaken from the literature. Several spray parameters were compared: spray tip penetration, temperature of the gaseous phaseand mixture fraction in the gaseous phase. The numerical results were very consistent in respect of spray tip penetration. Theother parameters were influenced by specific features of the Lagrangian approach. Nevertheless the results obtained showedthat the Lagrangian approach may be used for engine relevant conditions.

Author Biographies

Wojciech Smuga, Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering
MSc student
Lukasz Jan Kapusta, Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering
Assistant professor
Andrzej Teodorczyk, Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering


[1] A. Roy, C. Segal, Experimental study of fluid jet mixing at supercritical
conditions, Journal of Propulsion and Power 26 (2010) 1205–1211.
[2] C. Segal, S. Polikhov, Subcritical to supercritical mixing., Physics of
Fluids 20 (2008;20:052101–1 – 052101–7.) 052101–1 – 052101–7.
[3] B. Chehroudi, D. Talley, E. Coy, Visual characteristics and initial growth
rates of round cryogenic jets at subcritical and supercritical pressures.,
Physics of Fluids 14 (2002) 850–861.
[4] V. Zong, N. Yang*, Cryogenic fluid jets and mixing layers in transcritical
and supercritical environments., Combustion Science and Technology
178 (2006;178:193–227.) 193–227.
[5] R. Rachedi, L. Crook, P. Sojka, An experimental study of swirling supercritical
hydrocarbon fuel jets., Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines
and Power 132 (2010) 081502–1 – 081502–9.
[6] R. Dahms, J. Manin, L. Pickett, J. Oefelein, Understanding highpressure
gas-liquid interface phenomena in diesel engines., Proceedings
of the Combustion Institute 34 (2013) 1667–1675.
[7] M. Pilch, C. Erdman, Use of breakup time data and velocity history
data to predict the maximum size of stable fragments for accelerationinduced
breakup of a liquid drop., International Journal of Multiphase
Flow 13 (1987) 741–757.
[8] K. Hanjali´c, M. Popovac, M. Hadžiabdi´c, A robust near-wall ellipticrelaxation
eddy-viscosity turbulence model for cfd., International Journal
of Multiphase Flow 25 (2004) 1047–1051.
[9] J. Dukowicz, A particle-fluid numerical model for liquid sprays., Journal
of Computational Physics 35 (1980) 229–253.
[10] G. Stiesch, Modeling engine spray and combustion processes.,
Springer, 2003.
[11] A. Kapusta, ŁJ. Teodorczyk, Numerical simulations of a simultaneous
direct injection of liquid and gaseous fuels into a constant volume
chamber., Journal of Power Technologies 92 (2012) 12–19.
[12] Sandia National Laboratories. Engine Combustion Network - Data
searching utility (2014).
How to Cite
SMUGA, Wojciech; KAPUSTA, Lukasz Jan; TEODORCZYK, Andrzej. Numerical simulations of n–heptane spray in high pressure and temperature environments. Journal of Power Technologies, [S.l.], v. 97, n. 1, p. 1--6, feb. 2017. ISSN 2083-4195. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 july 2024.
Combustion and Fuel Processing


CFD; n-heptane; spray; injection; supercritical mixing

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.