# Stochastic Risk and Reliability Assessments of Energy Management System in Grid of Microgrids under Uncertainty

### Abstract

As various renewable energy resources (RERs) are exploited within microgrids (MGs), some important challenges havearisen as regards coping with generation fluctuations. This paper proposes a probabilistic method aimed at achieving optimalcoordinated operation in a grid of microgrids under uncertainties of RERs and variable load demand. In the supposed structurebased on networked microgrids (NMGs), a two-level strategy is required for guaranteeing efficient coordination between theMGs and distribution network operator (DNO). Another contribution of the paper deals with the flexibility of NMGs in improvingthe reliability of the whole system. Additionally, the value at risk (VaR) calculations for output results are carried out for differentconfidence levels with two important methods. In sum, the aim of the paper is to minimize total energy costs considering theenvironmental effects. To achieve this purpose, the Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) as a heuristic algorithm is appliedto solve the optimal power dispatch problem and the obtained results are compared using the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS)method. As the input data are modeled under uncertainties, the output results are described with probability distributionfunction (PDF).### References

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architectures-a system of systems perspective, IET Renewable

Power Generation 9 (8) (2015) 1064–1078.

[2] N. Nikmehr, S. N. Ravadanegh, Optimal power dispatch of multimicrogrids

at future smart distribution grids, IEEE Transactions on

Smart Grid 6 (4) (2015) 1648–1657.

[3] N. Nikmehr, S. Najafi-Ravadanegh, Reliability evaluation of multimicrogrids

considering optimal operation of small scale energy zones

under load-generation uncertainties, International Journal of Electrical

Power & Energy Systems 78 (2016) 80 – 87.

[4] H. Haddadian, R. Noroozian, Multi-microgrids approach for design and

operation of future distribution networks based on novel technical indices,

Applied Energy 185, Part 1 (2017) 650 – 663.

[5] N. Nikmehr, S. Najafi-Ravadanegh, A. Khodaei, Probabilistic optimal

scheduling of networked microgrids considering time-based demand

response programs under uncertainty, Applied Energy 198 (2017) 267

– 279.

[6] D. Gregoratti, J. Matamoros, Distributed energy trading: The multiplemicrogrid

case, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 62 (4)

(2015) 2551–2559.

[7] Z. Pooranian, N. Nikmehr, S. Najafi-Ravadanegh, H. Mahdin,

J. Abawajy, Economical and environmental operation of smart networked

microgrids under uncertainties using nsga-ii, in: 2016 24th

International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer

Networks (SoftCOM), 2016, pp. 1–6.

[8] N. Nikmehr, S. Najafi-Ravadanegh, Optimal operation of distributed

generations in micro-grids under uncertainties in load and renewable

power generation using heuristic algorithm, IET Renewable Power

Generation 9 (8) (2015) 982–990.

[9] Z. Wang, B. Chen, J. Wang, M. M. Begovic, C. Chen, Coordinated

energy management of networked microgrids in distribution systems,

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 6 (1) (2015) 45–53.

[10] Z. Wang, B. Chen, J. Wang, J. kim, Decentralized energy management

system for networked microgrids in grid-connected and islanded

modes, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 7 (2) (2016) 1097–1105.

[11] A. Hussain, V. H. Bui, H. M. Kim, A resilient and privacy-preserving

energy management strategy for networked microgrids, IEEE Transactions

on Smart Grid PP (99) (2016) 1–1.

[12] S. A. Arefifar, Y. A. R. I. Mohamed, T. H. M. EL-Fouly, Comprehensive

operational planning framework for self-healing control actions in smart

distribution grids, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 28 (4) (2013)

4192–4200.

[13] Z. Wang, B. Chen, J. Wang, C. Chen, Networked microgrids for selfhealing

power systems, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 7 (1) (2016)

310–319.

[14] Z. Bie, P. Zhang, G. Li, B. Hua, M. Meehan, X. Wang, Reliability evaluation

of active distribution systems including microgrids, in: 2013 IEEE

Power Energy Society General Meeting, 2013, pp. 1–1.

[15] S. A. Arefifar, Y. A. R. I. Mohamed, T. H. M. EL-Fouly, Optimum microgrid

design for enhancing reliability and supply-security, IEEE Transactions

on Smart Grid 4 (3) (2013) 1567–1575.

[16] A. Safdarian, M. Z. Degefa, M. Lehtonen, M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Distribution

network reliability improvements in presence of demand response,

IET Generation, Transmission Distribution 8 (12) (2014) 2027–

2035.

[17] K. Kopsidas, A. Kapetanaki, v. levi, j. milanovic, Optimal demand response

scheduling with real time thermal ratings of overhead lines for

improved network reliability, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid PP (99)

(2016) 1–1.

[18] M. Asensio, J. Contreras, Stochastic unit commitment in isolated systems

with renewable penetration under cvar assessment, IEEE Transactions

on Smart Grid 7 (3) (2016) 1356–1367.

[19] M. Hemmati, N. Amjady, M. Ehsan, System modeling and optimization

for islanded micro-grid using multi-cross learning-based chaotic differential

evolution algorithm, International Journal of Electrical Power &

Energy Systems 56 (2014) 349–360.

[20] S. Conti, S. Raiti, Probabilistic load flow using monte carlo techniques

for distribution networks with photovoltaic generators, Solar Energy

81 (12) (2007) 1473–1481.

[21] N. Nikmehr, S. N. Ravadanegh, Solving probabilistic load flow in smart

distribution grids using heuristic methods, Journal of Renewable and

Sustainable Energy 7 (4) (2015) 043138.

[22] S. Kamalinia, M. Shahidehpour, Generation expansion planning in

wind-thermal power systems, IET generation, transmission & distribution

4 (8) (2010) 940–951.

[23] N. Nikmehr, Heuristic probabilistic power flow algorithm for microgrids

operation and planning, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution 9

(2015) 985–995.

[24] K. Clement-Nyns, E. Haesen, J. Driesen, The impact of charging plugin

hybrid electric vehicles on a residential distribution grid, IEEE Transactions

on Power Systems 25 (1) (2010) 371–380.

[25] M. Aien, M. Rashidinejad, M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, On possibilistic and

probabilistic uncertainty assessment of power flow problem: A review

and a new approach, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37

(2014) 883–895.

[26] H. Wu, X. Liu, M. Ding, Dynamic economic dispatch of a microgrid:

Mathematical models and solution algorithm, International Journal of

Electrical Power & Energy Systems 63 (2014) 336–346.

[27] S. A. Arefifar, A.-R. M. Yasser, T. H. El-Fouly, Optimum microgrid design

for enhancing reliability and supply-security, IEEE Transactions on

Smart Grid 4 (3) (2013) 1567–1575.

[28] J. Wu, X. Guan, Coordinated multi-microgrids optimal control algorithm

for smart distribution management system, IEEE Transactions

on Smart Grid 4 (4) (2013) 2174–2181.

[29] R. Yokoyama, T. Niimura, N. Saito, Modeling and evaluation of supply

reliability of microgrids including pv and wind power, in: Power and

Energy Society General Meeting-Conversion and Delivery of Electrical

Energy in the 21st Century, 2008 IEEE, IEEE, 2008, pp. 1–5.

[30] E. Atashpaz-Gargari, C. Lucas, Imperialist competitive algorithm: an

algorithm for optimization inspired by imperialistic competition, in:

2007 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2007, pp. 4661–

4667.

[31] A. Y. Saber, G. K. Venayagamoorthy, Efficient utilization of renewable

energy sources by gridable vehicles in cyber-physical energy systems,

IEEE Systems Journal 4 (3) (2010) 285–294.

[32] T. Niknam, F. Golestaneh, A. Malekpour, Probabilistic energy and operation

management of a microgrid containing wind/photovoltaic/fuel

cell generation and energy storage devices based on point estimate

method and self-adaptive gravitational search algorithm, Energy 43 (1)

(2012) 427–437.

[33] Y. Xiang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Robust energy management of microgrid with

uncertain renewable generation and load, IEEE Transactions on Smart

Grid 7 (2) (2016) 1034–1043.

[34] M. C. Bozchalui, C. A. Cañizares, K. Bhattacharya, Optimal energy

management of greenhouses in smart grids, IEEE Transactions on

Smart Grid 6 (2) (2015) 827–835.

[35] C. Chen, S. Duan, T. Cai, B. Liu, G. Hu, Smart energy management

system for optimal microgrid economic operation, IET renewable

power generation 5 (3) (2011) 258–267.

[36] Y. Zhang, N. Gatsis, G. B. Giannakis, Robust energy management

for microgrids with high-penetration renewables, IEEE Transactions on

Sustainable Energy 4 (4) (2013) 944–953.

[37] E. Crisostomi, M. Liu, M. Raugi, R. Shorten, Plug-and-play distributed

algorithms for optimized power generation in a microgrid, IEEE Transactions

on Smart Grid 5 (4) (2014) 2145–2154.

[38] S. Paudyal, C. A. Canizares, K. Bhattacharya, Optimal operation of distribution

feeders in smart grids, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

58 (10) (2011) 4495–4503.

[39] M. C. Bozchalui, C. A. Cañizares, K. Bhattacharya, Optimal operation

of climate control systems of produce storage facilities in smart grids,

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 6 (1) (2015) 351–359.

[40] R. Allan, R. Billinton, A. Breipohl, C. Grigg, Bibliography on the application

of probability methods in power system reliability evaluation,

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 14 (1) (1999) 51–57.

[41] R. Billinton, M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, L. Bertling, Bibliography on the application

of probability methods in power system reliability evaluation

1996-1999, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 16 (4) (2001) 595–

602.

[42] S. A. Arefifar, A.-R. M. Yasser, T. H. El-Fouly, Optimum microgrid design

for enhancing reliability and supply-security, IEEE Transactions on

Smart Grid 4 (3) (2013) 1567–1575.

[43] J. A. Martinez-Velasco, G. Guerra, Parallel monte carlo approach for

distribution reliability assessment, IET Generation, Transmission &

Distribution 8 (11) (2014) 1810–1819.

[44] S. Bahramirad, W. Reder, A. Khodaei, Reliability-constrained optimal

sizing of energy storage system in a microgrid, IEEE Transactions on

Smart Grid 3 (4) (2012) 2056–2062.

[45] S. Wang, Z. Li, L. Wu, M. Shahidehpour, Z. Li, New metrics for assessing

the reliability and economics of microgrids in distribution system,

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 28 (3) (2013) 2852–2861.

[46] C. J. Booth, G. P. Kurpis, The new IEEE standard dictionary of electrical

and electronics terms, IEEE New York, USA, 1993.

[47] Q. Wang, A. Yang, F. Wen, J. Li, Risk-based security-constrained economic

dispatch in power systems, Journal of Modern Power Systems

and Clean Energy 1 (2) (2013) 142–149.

[48] H. K. Nunna, S. Doolla, Multiagent-based distributed-energy-resource

management for intelligent microgrids, IEEE Transactions on Industrial

Electronics 60 (4) (2013) 1678–1687.

[49] Z. Wang, B. Chen, J. Wang, C. Chen, Networked microgrids for selfhealing

power systems, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 7 (1) (2016)

310–319.

[50] J. Ni, Q. Ai, Economic power transaction using coalitional game strategy

in micro-grids, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution 10 (1)

(2016) 10–18.

[51] M. Fathi, H. Bevrani, Adaptive energy consumption scheduling for connected

microgrids under demand uncertainty, IEEE Transactions on

Power Delivery 28 (3) (2013) 1576–1583.

[52] M. Fathi, H. Bevrani, Statistical cooperative power dispatching in interconnected

microgrids, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy 4 (3)

(2013) 586–593.

[53] A. K. Marvasti, Y. Fu, S. DorMohammadi, M. Rais-Rohani, Optimal

operation of active distribution grids: A system of systems framework,

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 5 (3) (2014) 1228–1237.

[54] Z. Wang, B. Chen, J. Wang, M. M. Begovic, C. Chen, Coordinated

energy management of networked microgrids in distribution systems,

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 6 (1) (2015) 45–53.

architectures-a system of systems perspective, IET Renewable

Power Generation 9 (8) (2015) 1064–1078.

[2] N. Nikmehr, S. N. Ravadanegh, Optimal power dispatch of multimicrogrids

at future smart distribution grids, IEEE Transactions on

Smart Grid 6 (4) (2015) 1648–1657.

[3] N. Nikmehr, S. Najafi-Ravadanegh, Reliability evaluation of multimicrogrids

considering optimal operation of small scale energy zones

under load-generation uncertainties, International Journal of Electrical

Power & Energy Systems 78 (2016) 80 – 87.

[4] H. Haddadian, R. Noroozian, Multi-microgrids approach for design and

operation of future distribution networks based on novel technical indices,

Applied Energy 185, Part 1 (2017) 650 – 663.

[5] N. Nikmehr, S. Najafi-Ravadanegh, A. Khodaei, Probabilistic optimal

scheduling of networked microgrids considering time-based demand

response programs under uncertainty, Applied Energy 198 (2017) 267

– 279.

[6] D. Gregoratti, J. Matamoros, Distributed energy trading: The multiplemicrogrid

case, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 62 (4)

(2015) 2551–2559.

[7] Z. Pooranian, N. Nikmehr, S. Najafi-Ravadanegh, H. Mahdin,

J. Abawajy, Economical and environmental operation of smart networked

microgrids under uncertainties using nsga-ii, in: 2016 24th

International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer

Networks (SoftCOM), 2016, pp. 1–6.

[8] N. Nikmehr, S. Najafi-Ravadanegh, Optimal operation of distributed

generations in micro-grids under uncertainties in load and renewable

power generation using heuristic algorithm, IET Renewable Power

Generation 9 (8) (2015) 982–990.

[9] Z. Wang, B. Chen, J. Wang, M. M. Begovic, C. Chen, Coordinated

energy management of networked microgrids in distribution systems,

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 6 (1) (2015) 45–53.

[10] Z. Wang, B. Chen, J. Wang, J. kim, Decentralized energy management

system for networked microgrids in grid-connected and islanded

modes, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 7 (2) (2016) 1097–1105.

[11] A. Hussain, V. H. Bui, H. M. Kim, A resilient and privacy-preserving

energy management strategy for networked microgrids, IEEE Transactions

on Smart Grid PP (99) (2016) 1–1.

[12] S. A. Arefifar, Y. A. R. I. Mohamed, T. H. M. EL-Fouly, Comprehensive

operational planning framework for self-healing control actions in smart

distribution grids, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 28 (4) (2013)

4192–4200.

[13] Z. Wang, B. Chen, J. Wang, C. Chen, Networked microgrids for selfhealing

power systems, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 7 (1) (2016)

310–319.

[14] Z. Bie, P. Zhang, G. Li, B. Hua, M. Meehan, X. Wang, Reliability evaluation

of active distribution systems including microgrids, in: 2013 IEEE

Power Energy Society General Meeting, 2013, pp. 1–1.

[15] S. A. Arefifar, Y. A. R. I. Mohamed, T. H. M. EL-Fouly, Optimum microgrid

design for enhancing reliability and supply-security, IEEE Transactions

on Smart Grid 4 (3) (2013) 1567–1575.

[16] A. Safdarian, M. Z. Degefa, M. Lehtonen, M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Distribution

network reliability improvements in presence of demand response,

IET Generation, Transmission Distribution 8 (12) (2014) 2027–

2035.

[17] K. Kopsidas, A. Kapetanaki, v. levi, j. milanovic, Optimal demand response

scheduling with real time thermal ratings of overhead lines for

improved network reliability, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid PP (99)

(2016) 1–1.

[18] M. Asensio, J. Contreras, Stochastic unit commitment in isolated systems

with renewable penetration under cvar assessment, IEEE Transactions

on Smart Grid 7 (3) (2016) 1356–1367.

[19] M. Hemmati, N. Amjady, M. Ehsan, System modeling and optimization

for islanded micro-grid using multi-cross learning-based chaotic differential

evolution algorithm, International Journal of Electrical Power &

Energy Systems 56 (2014) 349–360.

[20] S. Conti, S. Raiti, Probabilistic load flow using monte carlo techniques

for distribution networks with photovoltaic generators, Solar Energy

81 (12) (2007) 1473–1481.

[21] N. Nikmehr, S. N. Ravadanegh, Solving probabilistic load flow in smart

distribution grids using heuristic methods, Journal of Renewable and

Sustainable Energy 7 (4) (2015) 043138.

[22] S. Kamalinia, M. Shahidehpour, Generation expansion planning in

wind-thermal power systems, IET generation, transmission & distribution

4 (8) (2010) 940–951.

[23] N. Nikmehr, Heuristic probabilistic power flow algorithm for microgrids

operation and planning, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution 9

(2015) 985–995.

[24] K. Clement-Nyns, E. Haesen, J. Driesen, The impact of charging plugin

hybrid electric vehicles on a residential distribution grid, IEEE Transactions

on Power Systems 25 (1) (2010) 371–380.

[25] M. Aien, M. Rashidinejad, M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, On possibilistic and

probabilistic uncertainty assessment of power flow problem: A review

and a new approach, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37

(2014) 883–895.

[26] H. Wu, X. Liu, M. Ding, Dynamic economic dispatch of a microgrid:

Mathematical models and solution algorithm, International Journal of

Electrical Power & Energy Systems 63 (2014) 336–346.

[27] S. A. Arefifar, A.-R. M. Yasser, T. H. El-Fouly, Optimum microgrid design

for enhancing reliability and supply-security, IEEE Transactions on

Smart Grid 4 (3) (2013) 1567–1575.

[28] J. Wu, X. Guan, Coordinated multi-microgrids optimal control algorithm

for smart distribution management system, IEEE Transactions

on Smart Grid 4 (4) (2013) 2174–2181.

[29] R. Yokoyama, T. Niimura, N. Saito, Modeling and evaluation of supply

reliability of microgrids including pv and wind power, in: Power and

Energy Society General Meeting-Conversion and Delivery of Electrical

Energy in the 21st Century, 2008 IEEE, IEEE, 2008, pp. 1–5.

[30] E. Atashpaz-Gargari, C. Lucas, Imperialist competitive algorithm: an

algorithm for optimization inspired by imperialistic competition, in:

2007 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2007, pp. 4661–

4667.

[31] A. Y. Saber, G. K. Venayagamoorthy, Efficient utilization of renewable

energy sources by gridable vehicles in cyber-physical energy systems,

IEEE Systems Journal 4 (3) (2010) 285–294.

[32] T. Niknam, F. Golestaneh, A. Malekpour, Probabilistic energy and operation

management of a microgrid containing wind/photovoltaic/fuel

cell generation and energy storage devices based on point estimate

method and self-adaptive gravitational search algorithm, Energy 43 (1)

(2012) 427–437.

[33] Y. Xiang, J. Liu, Y. Liu, Robust energy management of microgrid with

uncertain renewable generation and load, IEEE Transactions on Smart

Grid 7 (2) (2016) 1034–1043.

[34] M. C. Bozchalui, C. A. Cañizares, K. Bhattacharya, Optimal energy

management of greenhouses in smart grids, IEEE Transactions on

Smart Grid 6 (2) (2015) 827–835.

[35] C. Chen, S. Duan, T. Cai, B. Liu, G. Hu, Smart energy management

system for optimal microgrid economic operation, IET renewable

power generation 5 (3) (2011) 258–267.

[36] Y. Zhang, N. Gatsis, G. B. Giannakis, Robust energy management

for microgrids with high-penetration renewables, IEEE Transactions on

Sustainable Energy 4 (4) (2013) 944–953.

[37] E. Crisostomi, M. Liu, M. Raugi, R. Shorten, Plug-and-play distributed

algorithms for optimized power generation in a microgrid, IEEE Transactions

on Smart Grid 5 (4) (2014) 2145–2154.

[38] S. Paudyal, C. A. Canizares, K. Bhattacharya, Optimal operation of distribution

feeders in smart grids, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

58 (10) (2011) 4495–4503.

[39] M. C. Bozchalui, C. A. Cañizares, K. Bhattacharya, Optimal operation

of climate control systems of produce storage facilities in smart grids,

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 6 (1) (2015) 351–359.

[40] R. Allan, R. Billinton, A. Breipohl, C. Grigg, Bibliography on the application

of probability methods in power system reliability evaluation,

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 14 (1) (1999) 51–57.

[41] R. Billinton, M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, L. Bertling, Bibliography on the application

of probability methods in power system reliability evaluation

1996-1999, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 16 (4) (2001) 595–

602.

[42] S. A. Arefifar, A.-R. M. Yasser, T. H. El-Fouly, Optimum microgrid design

for enhancing reliability and supply-security, IEEE Transactions on

Smart Grid 4 (3) (2013) 1567–1575.

[43] J. A. Martinez-Velasco, G. Guerra, Parallel monte carlo approach for

distribution reliability assessment, IET Generation, Transmission &

Distribution 8 (11) (2014) 1810–1819.

[44] S. Bahramirad, W. Reder, A. Khodaei, Reliability-constrained optimal

sizing of energy storage system in a microgrid, IEEE Transactions on

Smart Grid 3 (4) (2012) 2056–2062.

[45] S. Wang, Z. Li, L. Wu, M. Shahidehpour, Z. Li, New metrics for assessing

the reliability and economics of microgrids in distribution system,

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 28 (3) (2013) 2852–2861.

[46] C. J. Booth, G. P. Kurpis, The new IEEE standard dictionary of electrical

and electronics terms, IEEE New York, USA, 1993.

[47] Q. Wang, A. Yang, F. Wen, J. Li, Risk-based security-constrained economic

dispatch in power systems, Journal of Modern Power Systems

and Clean Energy 1 (2) (2013) 142–149.

[48] H. K. Nunna, S. Doolla, Multiagent-based distributed-energy-resource

management for intelligent microgrids, IEEE Transactions on Industrial

Electronics 60 (4) (2013) 1678–1687.

[49] Z. Wang, B. Chen, J. Wang, C. Chen, Networked microgrids for selfhealing

power systems, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 7 (1) (2016)

310–319.

[50] J. Ni, Q. Ai, Economic power transaction using coalitional game strategy

in micro-grids, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution 10 (1)

(2016) 10–18.

[51] M. Fathi, H. Bevrani, Adaptive energy consumption scheduling for connected

microgrids under demand uncertainty, IEEE Transactions on

Power Delivery 28 (3) (2013) 1576–1583.

[52] M. Fathi, H. Bevrani, Statistical cooperative power dispatching in interconnected

microgrids, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy 4 (3)

(2013) 586–593.

[53] A. K. Marvasti, Y. Fu, S. DorMohammadi, M. Rais-Rohani, Optimal

operation of active distribution grids: A system of systems framework,

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 5 (3) (2014) 1228–1237.

[54] Z. Wang, B. Chen, J. Wang, M. M. Begovic, C. Chen, Coordinated

energy management of networked microgrids in distribution systems,

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 6 (1) (2015) 45–53.

Published

2017-11-01

How to Cite

NIKMEHR, Nima; NAJAFI-RAVADANEGH, Sajad.
Stochastic Risk and Reliability Assessments of Energy Management System in Grid of Microgrids under Uncertainty.

**Journal of Power Technologies**, [S.l.], v. 97, n. 3, p. 179--189, nov. 2017. ISSN 2083-4195. Available at: <https://papers.itc.pw.edu.pl/index.php/JPT/article/view/999>. Date accessed: 14 july 2024.
Issue

Section

Renewable and Sustainable Energy

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