LES numerical study on in–injector cavitating flow

  • Rafał Pyszczek Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering
  • Łukasz Jan Kapusta Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering
  • Andrzej Teodorczyk Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering


In this paper a computational study on hexane flow in a fuel injector is presented. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was usedto capture the turbulent patterns present in the flow. The main aim was to investigate the cavitation phenomenon and itsinteraction with turbulence as well as the influence of injection pressure and backpressure on fuel mass flow and flow conditions.Analysis of the approach to define the outlet boundary conditions in terms of convergence time and fluid mass outflowoscillations formed a crucial part of the study. Numerical simulations were performed with AVL Fire CFD (Computational FluidDynamics) software. The Euler-Euler approach and multifluid model for multiphase flow modelling were applied. Injectorneedle movement was included in the simulation. Results show that the additional volumes attached to the nozzle outletsimproved the convergence of the simulations and reduced mass outflow oscillations. Fuel mass flow at the outlets was dependenton inlet pressure, position of the needle and backpressure, while the influence of backpressure on fuel mass flow wasnegligible. The presence of the vapor phase at the exit of the nozzles did not affect average fuel mass flow. All the simulationsshowed interaction between the gaseous phase distribution and the turbulence of the flow.

Author Biographies

Rafał Pyszczek, Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering
PhD student
Łukasz Jan Kapusta, Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering
Research fellow
Andrzej Teodorczyk, Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering


[1] A. Sou, S. Hosokawa, A. Tomiyama, Effects of cavitation in a nozzle on
liquid jet atomization, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 50 (2007) 3575.3582.
[2] F. Payri, V. Bermudez, R. Payri, F. Salvador, The influence of cavitation
on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection
nozzles, Fuel 83 (2004) 419.431.
[3] R. Payri, J. Garcia, F. Salvador, J. Gimeno, Using spray momentum flux
measurements to understand the influence of diesel nozzle geometry
on spray characteristics, Fuel 84 (2005) 551.561.
[4] F. Payri, R. Payri, F. Salvador, J. Martinez-Lopez, A contribution to the
understanding of cavitation effects in diesel injector nozzles through a
combined experimental and computational investigation, Comput Fluids
58 (2012) 88.101.
[5] J. Javier Lopez, F. Salvador, O. de la Garza, J. Arregle, A comprehensive
study on the effect of cavitation on injection velocity in diesel
nozzles, Energy Conversion and Management 64 (2012) 415.423.
[6] F. Salvador, J. Martinez-Lopez, J.-V. Romero, M.-D. Rosello, Computational
study of the cavitation phenomenon and its interaction with the
turbulence developed in diesel injector nozzles by large eddy simulation
(les), Math Comput Modell 57 (2013) 1656.1662.
[7] R. Payri, B. Tormos, J. Gimeno, G. Bracho, The potential of large eddy
simulation (les) code for the modeling of flow in diesel injectors, Math
Comput Modell 2010 (2010) 1151.1160.
[8] R. Payri, B. Tormos, J. Gimeno, G. Bracho, Large eddy simulation for
high pressure flows: Model extension for compressible liquids, Math
Comput Modell 54 (2011) 1725.1731.
[9] B. Ji, X. Luo, R. Arndt, X. Peng, Y. Wu, Large eddy simulation and theoretical
investigations of the transient cavitating vortical flow structure
around a naca66 hydrofoil, Int J Multiphase Flow 68 (2015) 121.134.
[10] S. Jollet, T. Willeke, F. Dinkelacker, Comparison of various models for
transient nozzle flow simulations including time-resolved needle lift, in:
12th Trienn. Int. Conf. Liq. At. Spray Syst., vol. i, Heidelberg, Germany,
2012, pp. 1.8.
[11] E. Goncalves, R. Patella, Numerical simulation of cavitating flows with
homogeneous models, Comput Fluids 38 (2009) 1682.1696.
[12] P. Sagaut, Large Eddy Simulation for Incompressible Flows, 3rd Edition,
Springer, 2006.
[13] L. Berselli, T. Iliescu,W. Layton, Mathematics of Large Eddy Simulation
of Turbulent Flows, Springer, 2005.
[14] T. Iliescu, Large eddy simulation for turbulent flows, Ph.D. thesis
[15] U. Piomelli, Large-eddy simulation: achievements and challenges,
Prog Aerosp Sci 35 (1999) 335.362.
[16] J. McDonough, ntroductory lectures on turbulence physics, mathematics
and modeling, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics,
University of Kentucky (2004).
[17] P. Jaworski, M. . Zbikowski, Modele les w badaniach numerycznych procesow
spalania w silnikach t.okowych - przegla.d literatury (in polish),
Arch Comb 11 (2011) 111.144.
[18] J. Smagorinsky, General circulation experiments with the primitive
equations, Mon Weather Rev 91 (1963) 99.164.
[19] D. Wilcox, Turbulence modeling for CFD, DCW Industries, Inc, 1998.
[20] A. L. GmbH, Eulerian multiphase. avl fire softw doc. (2013).
[21] H. El-Din, Y.-S. Zhang, M. Elkelawy, A computational study of cavitation
model validity using a new quantitative criterion, Chinese Phys
Lett 29.
[22] C. Brennen, Cavitation and bubble dynamics, Oxford University Press,
[23] N. C.WebBook, [Online] Available: http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/.
[Accessed: 06-Jun-2013].
[24] F. Salvador, J.-V. Romero, M.-D. Rosello, J. Martinez-Lopez, Validation
of a code for modeling cavitation phenomena in diesel injector nozzles,
Math Comput Model 52 (2010) 1123.1132.
[25] F. Salvador, J. Martinez-Lopez, Study of the influence of the needle
lift on the internal flow and cavitation phenomenon in diesel injector
nozzles by cfd using rans methods, Energy Convers Manag 66 (2013)
[26] F. Salvador, J. Martinez-Lopez, J.-V. Romero, M.-D. Rosello, Influence
of biofuels on the internal flow in diesel injector nozzles, Math Comput
Model 54 (2011) 1699.1705.
[27] X. Wang, K. Li, W. Su, Experimental and numerical investigations on
internal flow characteristics of diesel nozzle under real fuel injection
conditions, Exp Therm Fluid Sci 42 (2012) 204.211.
[28] Z. He, W. Zhong, Q.Wang, Z. Jiang, Y. Fu, An investigation of transient
nature of the cavitating flow in injector nozzles, Appl Therm Eng.
[29] Z. He, W. Zhong, Q. Wang, Z. Jiang, Z. Shao, Effect of nozzle geometrical
and dynamic factors on cavitating and turbulent flow in a diesel
multi-hole injector nozzle, Int J Therm Sci 70 (2013) 132.143.
[30] M. Jia, M. Xie, H. Liu, W.-H. Lam, T. Wang, Numerical simulation of
cavitation in the conical-spray nozzle for diesel premixed charge compression
ignition engines, Fuel 90 (2011) 2652.2661.
[31] S. Gopalakrishnan, D. Schmidt, A computational study of flashing flow
in fuel injector nozzles, SAE Int J Engines (2009) 160.170.
[32] Y. Melsem, S. Honnet,W. Schwarz, J. Reveillon, F. Demoulin, Modeling
of cavitating flows in diesel injector nozzles to consider its impact on
the atomization, in: 24th Eur. Conf. Liq. At. Spray Syst., 2011, estoril,
How to Cite
PYSZCZEK, Rafał; KAPUSTA, Łukasz Jan; TEODORCZYK, Andrzej. LES numerical study on in–injector cavitating flow. Journal of Power Technologies, [S.l.], v. 97, n. 1, p. 52--60, feb. 2017. ISSN 2083-4195. Available at: <https://papers.itc.pw.edu.pl/index.php/JPT/article/view/607>. Date accessed: 13 apr. 2024.


cavitation; cavitating flow; in-injector flow; Eulerian multiphase; multiphase flow; numerical simulation; Large Eddy Simulation; LES

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.