Regression comparison of organic working mediums for low grade heat recovery operating on Rankine cycle

  • Sepideh Shahinfard San Diego State University, California
  • Asfaw Beyene San Diego State University, California


A logistic-regression based classifier is developed here to predict the probability of any working fluid as a desirable candidate for ultra-low grade heat driven organic Rankine cycle.  Global warming abilities, ozone depleting potentials as well as thermodynamic properties of the working medium are used to develop this generalized classifier.  As a validation of the suggested classifier, more than 80 working fluids are screened, and regression analyses used to rate the most appropriate candidates.  The preferable working mediums among those evaluated based on environmental impacts are HFCs.  Considering environmental issues, safety concerns, and performance characteristics however, the preferable working fluids among those tested are HFC-245fa, followed by HFC-134a, HFC-227ea, HFC-236ea, HFC-236fa, HC-600, HC-600a, HC-601, and HC-601a.


DiPippo R. Second law assessment of binary plants generating power from low-temperature geothermal fluids. Geothermics 2004; 33:565–86.

Andersen WC, Bruno TJ. Rapid screening of fluids for chemical stability in organic Rankine cycle applications. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 2005; 44:5560–6.

Kane M, Larrain D, Favrat D, Allani Y. Small hybrid solar power system. Energy 2003; 28:1427–43.

Schuster A, Karl J, Karellas S. Simulation of an innovative stand-alone solar desalination system using an organic Rankine cycle. International Journal of Thermodynamics 2007; 10:155.

Powell RL. CFC phase-out: have we met the challenge? Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 2002; 114:237–50.

Wei D, Lu X, Lu Z, Gu J. Dynamic modeling and simulation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for waste heat recovery. Applied Thermal Engineering 2008; 28:1216–24.

Wei D, Lu X, Lu Z, Gu J. Performance analysis and optimization of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for waste heat recovery. Energy Conversion and Management 2007; 48:1113–9.

Yamamoto T, Furuhata T, Arai N, Mori K. Design and testing of the Organic Rankine Cycle. Energy 2001; 26:239–251.

Madhawa Hettiarachchi HD, Golubovic M, Worek WM, Ikegami Y. Optimum design criteria for an organic Rankine cycle using low-temperature geothermal heat sources. Energy 2007; 32:1698–706.

Mago JP, Chamra ML, Srinivasan K, Somayaji C. An examination of regenerative organic Rankine cycles using dry fluids. Applied Thermal Engineering 2008; 28: 998–1007.

Drescher U, Bruggemann D. Fluid selection for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) in biomass power and heat plants. Applied Thermal Engineering 2007; 27: 223–8.

Maizza V, Maizza A. Working fluids in non-steady flows for waste energy recovery systems. Applied Thermal Engineering 1996; 16:579–90.

Maizza V, Maizza A. Unconventional working fuids in organic Rankine-cycles for waste energy recovery systems. Applied Thermal Engineering 2001; 21: 381-390.

Angelino G, Colonnadipaliano P. Multicomponent Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). Energy 1998: 23(6): 449-463.

Wang X, Zhao L. Analysis of zeotropic mixtures used in low-temperature solar Rankine cycles for power generation. Solar Energy 2009; 83(5):605–13.

Borsukiewicz-Gozdur A, Nowak W. "Desirable Thermophysical Properties of Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycle." Proceedings European Geothermal Congress. Unterhaching, Germany 2007.

Radermacher R. Thermodynamic and heat transfer implications of working fluid mixtures in Rankine cycles. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 1989; 10(6):90–102.

Zhang XR, Yamaguchi H, Fujima K, Enomoto M, Sawada N. Theoretical analysis of a thermodynamic cycle for power and heat production using supercritical carbon dioxide. Energy 2007; 32:591–9.

Chacartegui R, Sa´nchez D, Mun˜oz J, Sa´nchez T. Alternative ORC bottoming cycles for combined cycle power plants. Applied Energy 2009; 86:2162–70.

Hung TC, Shai TY, Wang SK. A review of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for the recovery of low-grade waste heat. Energy 1997; 22:661–7.

Chen Y, Lundqvist P, Johansson A, Platell P. A comparative study of the carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle compared with an organic Rankine cycle with R123 as working fluid in waste heat recovery. Applied Thermal Engineering 2006; 26:2142–7.

Dai Y, Wang J, Gao L. Parametric optimization and comparative study of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low grade waste heat recovery. Energy Conversion and Management 2009; 50:576–82.

Tchanche BF, Papadakis G, Lambrinos G, Frangoudakis A. Fluid selection for a low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle. Applied Thermal Engineering 2009; 29:2468–76.

Hung TC. Waste heat recovery of organic Rankine cycle using dry fluids. Energy Conversion and Management 2001; 42:539–53.

Saleh B, Koglbauer G, Wendland M, Fischer J. Working fluids for low-temperature organic Rankine cycles. Energy 2007; 32: 1210–1221.

Liu TB, Chien HK, Wang CC. Effect of working fluids on organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery. Energy 2004; 29(8): 1207–1217.

Rentizelas A, Karellas S, Kakaras E, Tatsiopoulos I. Comparative techno-economic analysis of ORC and gasification for bioenergy applications. Energy Conversion and Management 2009; 50(3):674–81.

Schuster A, Karellas S, Kakaras E, Spliethoff H. Energetic and economic investigation of organic Rankine cycle applications. Applied Thermal Engineering 2009; 29(6):1809–17.

Kosmadakis G, Manolakos D, Kyritsis S, Papadakis G. Economic assessment of a two-stage solar organic Rankine cycle for reverse osmosis desalination. Renewable Energy 2009; 34:1579–86.

Mathias JA, Johnston J, Cao J, Priedeman DK, Christensen RN. Experimental testing of gerotor and scroll expanders used in, and energetic and exergetic modeling of, an organic Rankine cycle. Journal of Energy Resources Technology 2009; 131(3):012201–12209.

Duffy PD, Better Cogeneration through Chemistry: The Organic Rankine Cycle. CEC Inc. in Cincinnati 2005.

Bertrand FT, Papadakis G, Lambrinos G, Frangoudakis A. Fluid selection for a low temperature solar organic Rankine cycle. Applied Thermal Engineering, doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng 2008.12.025.

El Chammas R. Combined Cycle for Hybrid Vehicles. Detroit, MI, USA: SAE World Congress & Exhibition 2005.

Lemort V, Quoilin S, Cuevas C, Teodore VI, Lebrun J. Development and experimental validation of an organic Rankine cycle Model. Heat Transfer in Components and Systems for Sustainable Energy Technologies 2007.

Gawlik K, Hassani V. Advanced binary cycles: optimum working fluids. Energy Conversion Engineering Conference 1997. IECEC-97, Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety. Honolulu, HI , USA, 1997; 3: 1809 - 1814.

Bliem JC, Mines LG. supercritical binary geothermal Cycle Experiments with mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids and a near-horizontal in-tube condenser. Idaho Falls: DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information, 1989.

James M. Calm, David A Didion, Trade-offs in Refrigerant Selections: Past, Present, and Future. National Institute of Standards and Technology, October 6-7, 1997.

Chen H, Goswami YD, Stefanakos KE. A review of thermodynamic cycles and working fluids for the conversion of low-grade heat. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2010; 14: 3059–3067.

US EPA,, accessed April 2013.
How to Cite
SHAHINFARD, Sepideh; BEYENE, Asfaw. Regression comparison of organic working mediums for low grade heat recovery operating on Rankine cycle. Journal of Power Technologies, [S.l.], v. 93, n. 4, p. 257--270, dec. 2013. ISSN 2083-4195. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 29 july 2021.


working medium selection, Organic Rankine cycle, low grade heat, refrigerants,

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.