Critical evaluation of R134a, R1234yf and R744 in passenger car cooling systems

  • Jan Grygierzec Silesian University of Technology
  • Sebastian Werle


The Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting substances and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are affecting the refrigeration industry. Both documents have banned the use of substances responsible for ozone depletion and global warming. The automotive industry must keep up with these changes. The design of cooling systems in cars must meet the requirements of new refrigerants.In addition, changing the production profile of large car companies towards electric and hybrid cars increases this need. This development has a significant impact on the solutions installed in passenger vehicles. The paper presents a critical assessment of R134a, R1234yf, and R744 in passenger car heat pump systems. The possibility of their use in common air conditioning systems with motor drive and in the heat pump of an electric vehicle was presented. The calculation algorithm of the heat pump system has been developed, showing the influence of the physical properties of refrigerants on efficiency during the process of the designed heat pump system. The impact of using new refrigerants in the car production process has been analyzed and commented on. The influence of thermodynamic and ecological properties of refrigerants on the process of designing a heat pump system using a calculation model was described.  Types of heat pump in electric cars and a calculation model were presented.


1. Binbin Yu, Jingye Yang, Dandong Wang, Junye Shi, Jiangping Chen. Energy consumption and increased EV range evaluation through heat pump scenarios and low GWP refrigerants in the new test procedure WLTP. International Journal of Refrigeration 100, 284–294 Elsevier BV, 2019. LinkEdit

2. International Energy Agency. IEA 2018. LinkEdit

3. The European Parliament, the European Council.. Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 of the European parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases and repealing regulation (EC) No 842/2006 (1), OJ 57 (L 150). 2014. p. 195-230.Edit

4. Mikolaj Mastrowski, Jacek Smolka, Armin Hafner, Michal Haida, Michal Palacz, Krzysztof Banasiak. Experimental study of the heat transfer problem in expansion devices in CO2 refrigeration systems. Energy 173, 586–597 Elsevier BV, 2019. LinkEdit

5. Gaurav, Raj Kumar. Computational energy and exergy analysis of R134a R1234yf, R1234ze and their mixtures in vapour compression system. Ain Shams Engineering Journal 9, 3229–3237 Elsevier BV, 2018. LinkEdit

6. J. i Hourahan Calm. Refrigeration for Sustainable Development 23rd International Congress of Refrigeration ICR 2011.Praga, 21–26 august 2011. In Physical, Safety, and Environmental Data for Current and Alternative Refrigerants. (2011).Edit

7. Walnum H.T. Neksa P. 9th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference 2010 - natural refrigerants – real alternatives, Sydney, April 12-14,. In CO2 - A refrigerant from the past with prospects of being one of the main refrigerants in the future. (2010).Edit

8. Velliyur Nott Mallikarjuna; Sievert Rao. Process to manufacture 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene. PCT Int. Appl. WO 2008030440 A2 20080313 (2008).Edit

9. G. Myhre, D. Shindell, F.-M. Bréon, W. Collins, J. Fuglestvedt, J. Huang, D. Koch, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Lee, B. Mendoza, T. Nakajima, A. Robock, G. Stephens, T. Takemura, H. Zhang. Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing. 659–740 In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 2013. LinkEdit

10. ASHRAE Standard. Designation and safety classification of refrigerants. Ansi/Ashrae Standard 34–2007 (2008).Edit

11. Eric W Lemmon, Marcia L Huber, Mark O McLinden. NIST reference fluid thermodynamic and transport properties–REFPROP. Version, 2002.Edit

12. P Neksa. CO2 as The Refrigerant for Systems in Transcritical Operation Principles and Technology Status-Part I. 3, 28–33 In Natural Refrigerants Conference AIRAH’s. (2004).Edit

13. P Ronald. Carbon dioxide. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley, New York, US (2001).Edit

14. Pamela Reasor, Vikrant Aute, Reinhard Radermacher. Refrigerant R1234yf performance comparison investigation. (2010).Edit

15. Kwang-Il Choi, Jong-Taek Oh, Kiyoshi Saito, Jong Soo Jeong. Comparison of heat transfer coefficient during evaporation of natural refrigerants and R-1234yf in horizontal small tube. International journal of refrigeration 41, 210–218 Elsevier, 2014.Edit

16. J Steven Brown, Samuel F Yana-Motta, Piotr A Domanski. Comparitive analysis of an automotive air conditioning systems operating with CO2 and R134a. International Journal of refrigeration 25, 19–32 Elsevier, 2002.Edit

17. Adrián Mota-Babiloni, Joaquín Navarro-Esbrí, Ángel Barragán, Francisco Molés, Bernardo Peris. Drop-in energy performance evaluation of R1234yf and R1234ze (E) in a vapor compression system as R134a replacements. Applied Thermal Engineering 71, 259–265 Elsevier, 2014.Edit

18. Andreas Poullikkas. Quantifying energy not served in power capacity expansion planning with intermittent sustainable technologies. Journal of Power Technologies 95, 25–33 (2014).Edit

19. J Mate, C Papathanasopoulos, S Latif. Cool technologies: working without HFCs. Amsterdam: Greenpeace (2012).Edit
How to Cite
GRYGIERZEC, Jan; WERLE, Sebastian. Critical evaluation of R134a, R1234yf and R744 in passenger car cooling systems. Journal of Power Technologies, [S.l.], v. 100, n. 3, p. 232-239, sep. 2020. ISSN 2083-4195. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 19 june 2021.
32nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.