Effects of gas velocity on formation of carbon deposits on AS-SOFC fuel electrodes

  • Konrad Motylinski Institute of Power Engineering
  • Marek Skrzypkiewicz Institute of Power Engineering
  • Yevgeniy Naumovich Institute of Power Engineering
  • Michał Wierzbicki Institute of Power Engineering
  • Jakub Kupecki Institute of Power Engineering


The elevated operating temperatures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) create favorable kinetics for the oxidation of carboncontaininggas mixtures, which may include carbon monoxide and light organic compounds. The presence of carbon-basedcomponents in the fuel might result in the formation and deposition of soot on the surface of the anode in a fuel cell. Thisprocess depends on and is driven by the prevailing thermodynamic, kinetic and electrochemical conditions. The presentstudy was premised on the following: in addition to the aforementioned parameters providing for the operating conditions,gas velocity also affects the formation of deposits on the anode. The role of fuel gas velocity in the process was studiedexperimentally using 5 cm x 5 cm anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (AS-SOFC) at 750°C at velocities in the range 0.1to 0.9 m/s. It was found that carbon deposition was clearly observable approximately 24 hours after the necessary conditionswere attained. An intense stage of performance degradation typically lasts for a period of up to 60 hours. An increase in fuelflow velocity leads to an acceleration in the carbon deposition process. The correlation between velocity and cell degradationdue to this phenomenon was determined and the corresponding function was proposed.


[1] A. Silva, C. Malfatti, I. Iler, Thermodynamic analysis of ethanol steam
reforming using gibbs energy minimization method: A detailed study of
the conditions of carbon deposition, International Journal of Hydrogen
Energy 34 (2009) 4321–4330.
[2] S. Singhal, K. Kendall, High temperature solid oxide fuel cells: fundamentals,
design and applications, 2003.
[3] S. Srinivasan, Fuel cells. From fundamentals to applications, 2006.
[4] C. Song, Fuel processing for low-temperature and high-temperature
fuel cells. challenges, and opportunities for sustainable development
in the 21st century, Catalysis Today 17 (2002) 17–49.
[5] E. S. Inc., Fuel cell handbook (Seventh edition), 2004.
[6] Y. Liu, Performance evaluation of several commercial alloys in a reducing
environment, Journal of Power Sources 179 (1) (2008) 286–291.
[7] J. Macek, B. Novosel, M. Marinsek, Ni-ysz sofc anodes – minimization,
Journal of the European Ceramic Society 27 (2007) 487–491.
[8] F. Cayan, M. Zhi, S. Pakalapati, I. Celik, N. Wu, R. Gemmen, Effects
of coal syngas impurities on anodes of solid oxide fuel cells, Journal of
Power Sources 185 (2008) 595–602.
[9] T. Chen, W. Wang, H. Miao, T. Li, C. Xu, Evaluation of carbon deposition
behavior on the nickel/yttrium-stabilized zirconia anode-supported
fuel cell fueled with simulated syngas, Journal of Power Sources 196
(2011) 2461–2468.
[10] V. Subotic, C. Schluckner, C. Hochenauer, An experimental and numerical
study of performance of large planar esc-sofcs and experimental
investigation of carbon depositions, Journal of the Energy Institute
89 (2016) 121–137.
[11] Y. Zhang, Z. Yang, M. Wang, Understanding on the carbon deposition
on the nickel/yttrium-stabilized zirconia anode caused by the co containing
fuels, Journal of Power Sources 279 (2015) 759–765.
[12] T. Takeguchi, R. Kikuchi, T. Yano, K. Eguchi, K. Murata, Effect of precious
metal addition to ni–ysz cermet on reforming of ch4 and electrochemical
activity as sofc anode, Catalysis Today 84 (3/4) (2003)
[13] T. Takeguch, Y. Kani, T. Yano, R. Kikuchi, K. Eguchi, K. Tsujimoto,
Y. Uchida, A. Ueno, K. Omoshiki, M. Aizawa, Study on steam reforming
of ch4 and c2 hydrocarbons and carbon deposition on ni–ysz cermets,
Journal of Power Sources 112 (2) (2005) 588–595.
[14] T. Borowiecki, A. Gotebiowski, B. Stasifiska, Effects of small moo3 additions
on the properties of nickel catalysts for the steam reforming of
hydrocarbons, Applied Catalysis A: General 153 (1997) 141–156.
[15] D. Niakolas, J. Ouweltjes, G. Rietveld, V. Dracopoulos, S. Neophytides,
Au-doped ni/gdc as a new anode for sofcs operating under rich ch4
internal steam reforming, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
35 (15) (2010) 7898–7904.
[16] J. Koh, Y. Yoo, J. Park, H. Lim, Carbon deposition and cell performance
of ni-ysz anode support sofc with methane fuel, Solid State Ionics 149
(2002) 157–166.
[17] V. Alzate-Restrepo, J. Hill, Carbon deposition on ni/ysz anodes exposed
to co/h2 feed, Journal of Power Sources 142 (2005) 194–199.
[18] D. Singh, E. Hernandez-Pacheco, P. Hutton, N. Patel, M. Mann, Carbon
deposition in an sofc fueled by tar-laden biomass gas: a thermodynamic
analysis, Journal of Power Sources 142 (2005) 194–199.
[19] K. Girona, J. Laurencin, J. Fouletier, F. Lefebvre-Joud, Carbon deposition
in ch4/co2 operated sofc: Simulation and experimentation studies,
Journal of Power Sources 210 (2012) 381–391.
[20] K. Eguchi, H. Kojo, T. Takeguchi, R. Kikuchi, K. Sasaki, Fuel flexibility
in power generation by solid oxide fuel cells, Solid State Ionics 152-153
(2002) 411–416.
[21] J. Milewski, A mathematical model of sofc: A proposal, Fuel Cells
12 (5) (2012) 709–721.
[22] J. Kupecki, J. Milewski, J. Jewulski, Investigation of sofc material properties
for plant-level modeling, Central European Journal of Chemistry
11 (5) (2013) 664–671.
[23] C. Huang, S. Shy, C. Chien, C. Lee, Parametric study of anodic microstructures
to cell performance of planar solid oxide fuel cell using
measured porous transport properties, Journal of Power Sources
195 (8) (2010) 2260–2265.
[24] J. Kupecki, J. Milewski, A. Szczesniak, R. Bernat, K. Motylinski, Dynamic
numerical analysis of cross-, co-, and counter-current flow configuration
of a 1 kw-class solid oxide fuel cell stack, International Journal
of Hydrogen Energy 40 (45) (2015) 15834–15844.
[25] R. Kluczowski, M. Krauz, M. Kawalec, J. Ouweltjes, Near net shape
manufacturing of planar anode supported solid oxide fuel cells by using
ceramic injection molding and screen printing, Journal of Power
Sources 268 (2014) 752–757.
[26] J. Kupecki, Modeling platform for a micro-chp system with sofc operating
under load changes, Applied Mechanics and Materials 607 (2014)
[27] K. Badyda, J. Kupecki, J. Milewski, Modelling of integrated gasification
hybrid power systems, Rynek Energii 88 (3) (2010) 74–79.
[28] J. Kupecki, J. Jewulski, K. Badyda, Selection of a fuel processing
method for sofc-based micro-chp system, Rynek Energii 97 (6) (2011)
[29] Z. Jaworski, B. Zakrzewska, P. Pianko-Oprych, On thermodynamic
equilibrium of carbon deposition from gaseous c-h-o mixtures: Updating
for nanotubes, Reviews in Chemical Engineering 33 (3) (2002)
How to Cite
MOTYLINSKI, Konrad et al. Effects of gas velocity on formation of carbon deposits on AS-SOFC fuel electrodes. Journal of Power Technologies, [S.l.], v. 98, n. 4, p. 322–328, sep. 2018. ISSN 2083-4195. Available at: <https://papers.itc.pw.edu.pl/index.php/JPT/article/view/1404>. Date accessed: 14 july 2024.
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen


Boudouard Reaction, Carbon Deposition, SOFC, Soot Formation

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.