Comparison of ORC and Kalina cycles for waste heat recovery in the steel industry

  • Jarosław Milewski Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering
  • Janusz Krasucki CIM-mes Projekt Sp.z o.o.


This paper presents the results of a comparative study of waste heat recovery systems based on the Organic Rankine Cycle(ORC) and Kalina Cycle (KC) that could be applied to the steel industry. The simulations were performed for an electricarc furnace (EAF) steel mill and waste heat recovery system with saturated steam as a heat carrier. Commercial softwareASPEN-HYSYS was used to calculate system performances under different loads for ORC with different working fluids(butylobenzene, n-hexane, n-pentane) and for KC. Each case was optimized for maximum system efficiency. In terms of netsystem electric efficiency and electric power output, under nominal operating conditions similar performances were obtainedfor ORC with n-pentane working fluid and KC based systems. The highest system efficiency was observed for ORC withbutylobenzene as working fluid, whereas the KC becomes competitive versus ORC for heat carrier temperatures of 200°Cand above.


[1] . URL
[2] Pitagoras project webpage, . URL
[3] M.J. Box. A new method of constrained optimization and a comparison
with other methods. The Computer Journal, pages 42–45, 1965.
[4] F. Campana, M. Bianchi, L. Branchini, A. De Pascale, and others. Orc
waste heat recovery in european energy intensive industries, Energy
and GHG savings. Energy Conversion and Management, 76:244–252,
[5] A. I. Kalina. Combined-cycle system with novel bottoming cycle.
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 106:737–
42, 1984.
[6] Kyoung Hoon Kim, Hyung Jong Ko, and Kyoungjin Kim. Assessment
of pinch point characteristics in heat exchangers and condensers of
ammonia-water based power cycles. Applied Energy, pages 970–981,
[7] J.L. Kuester and J.H. Mize. Optimization Techniques with FORTRAN.
McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1973.
[8] D. H. Kwak, , S. Y. Oh, and J. K. Kim. Process integration study for the
use of industrial low grade heat. Chemical Engineering Transactions,
29:1591–6, 2012.
[9] B. K. Saleh, M. Wendland, and J. Fischer. Working fluids for lowtemperature
organic rankine cycles. Energy, 32:1210–21, 2007.
[10] R. A. Victor, J. K. Kim, and R. Smith. Composition optimisation of
working fluids for organic rankine cycles and kalina cycles. Energy,
pages 114–126, 2013.
[11] C. Walsh and P. Thornely. Cost effective greenhouse gas reductions in
the steel industry from an organic rankine cycle. Chemical Engineering
Transactions, 25:905–10, 2011.
[12] D. Wang, X. Ling, and H. Peng. Performance analysis of double organic
rankine cycle for discontinuous low temperature waste heat recovery.
Applied Thermal Engineering, 48:63–71, 2012.
[13] X. Zhang, M. He, and Y. Zhang. A review of research on the kalina
cycle. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16:5309–5318,
How to Cite
MILEWSKI, Jarosław; KRASUCKI, Janusz. Comparison of ORC and Kalina cycles for waste heat recovery in the steel industry. Journal of Power Technologies, [S.l.], v. 97, n. 4, p. 302--307, jan. 2018. ISSN 2083-4195. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 july 2024.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy


Waste heat recovery, EAF process, ORC system, Kalina Cycle system

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.