A comparative review of electrical energy storage systems for better sustainability

  • Pavlos Nikolaidis Department of Electrical Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology
  • Andreas Poullikkas Chair and Professor of Power Systems Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering and Informatics Cyprus University of Technology


The accelerated growth of the energy economy is still highly dependent on finite fossil fuel reserves. Modern power systemscould not exist without the many forms of electricity storage that can be integrated at different levels of the power chain. Thiswork contains a review of the most important applications in which storage provides electricity-market opportunities along withother benefits such as arbitrage, balancing and reserve power sources, voltage and frequency control, investment deferral,cost management and load shaping and levelling. Using a 5 function normalization technique a comparative assessmentof 19 electrical energy storage (EES) technologies, based on their technical and operational characteristics, is carried outand the technology-application pairs identified across the power chain are presented. In terms of safety and simplicity, Pbacidand Li-ion systems are viable options for small-scale residential applications, while advanced Pb-acid and molten-saltbatteries are suited to medium-to-large scale applications including commercial and industrial consumers. In addition totheir expected use in the transportation sector in the coming years, regenerative fuel cells and flow batteries have intriguingpotential to offer in stationary applications once they are mature for commercialization. For large-scale/energy-managementapplications, pumped hydro is the most reliable energy storage option (over compressed-air alternatives) whereas flywheels,supercapacitors and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) are still focused on power-based applications. Asdifferent parts in the power system involve different stakeholders and services, each technology with its own benefits andweaknesses requires research and development in order to emerge over others and contribute to more effective energyproduction in the future.

Author Biography

Andreas Poullikkas, Chair and Professor of Power Systems Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering and Informatics Cyprus University of Technology


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How to Cite
NIKOLAIDIS, Pavlos; POULLIKKAS, Andreas. A comparative review of electrical energy storage systems for better sustainability. Journal of Power Technologies, [S.l.], v. 97, n. 3, p. 220--245, nov. 2017. ISSN 2083-4195. Available at: <https://papers.itc.pw.edu.pl/index.php/JPT/article/view/1096>. Date accessed: 14 july 2024.
Energy Conversion and Storage


electricity storage; power sources; electricity markets

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