LES numerical study on in–injector cavitating flow

Rafał Pyszczek, Łukasz Jan Kapusta, Andrzej Teodorczyk


In this paper a computational study on hexane flow in a fuel injector is presented. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was used
to capture the turbulent patterns present in the flow. The main aim was to investigate the cavitation phenomenon and its
interaction with turbulence as well as the influence of injection pressure and backpressure on fuel mass flow and flow conditions.
Analysis of the approach to define the outlet boundary conditions in terms of convergence time and fluid mass outflow
oscillations formed a crucial part of the study. Numerical simulations were performed with AVL Fire CFD (Computational Fluid
Dynamics) software. The Euler-Euler approach and multifluid model for multiphase flow modelling were applied. Injector
needle movement was included in the simulation. Results show that the additional volumes attached to the nozzle outlets
improved the convergence of the simulations and reduced mass outflow oscillations. Fuel mass flow at the outlets was dependent
on inlet pressure, position of the needle and backpressure, while the influence of backpressure on fuel mass flow was
negligible. The presence of the vapor phase at the exit of the nozzles did not affect average fuel mass flow. All the simulations
showed interaction between the gaseous phase distribution and the turbulence of the flow.


cavitation; cavitating flow; in-injector flow; Eulerian multiphase; multiphase flow; numerical simulation; Large Eddy Simulation; LES

Full Text:



A. Sou, S. Hosokawa, A. Tomiyama, Effects of cavitation in a nozzle on

liquid jet atomization, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 50 (2007) 3575.3582.

F. Payri, V. Bermudez, R. Payri, F. Salvador, The influence of cavitation

on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection

nozzles, Fuel 83 (2004) 419.431.

R. Payri, J. Garcia, F. Salvador, J. Gimeno, Using spray momentum flux

measurements to understand the influence of diesel nozzle geometry

on spray characteristics, Fuel 84 (2005) 551.561.

F. Payri, R. Payri, F. Salvador, J. Martinez-Lopez, A contribution to the

understanding of cavitation effects in diesel injector nozzles through a

combined experimental and computational investigation, Comput Fluids

(2012) 88.101.

J. Javier Lopez, F. Salvador, O. de la Garza, J. Arregle, A comprehensive

study on the effect of cavitation on injection velocity in diesel

nozzles, Energy Conversion and Management 64 (2012) 415.423.

F. Salvador, J. Martinez-Lopez, J.-V. Romero, M.-D. Rosello, Computational

study of the cavitation phenomenon and its interaction with the

turbulence developed in diesel injector nozzles by large eddy simulation

(les), Math Comput Modell 57 (2013) 1656.1662.

R. Payri, B. Tormos, J. Gimeno, G. Bracho, The potential of large eddy

simulation (les) code for the modeling of flow in diesel injectors, Math

Comput Modell 2010 (2010) 1151.1160.

R. Payri, B. Tormos, J. Gimeno, G. Bracho, Large eddy simulation for

high pressure flows: Model extension for compressible liquids, Math

Comput Modell 54 (2011) 1725.1731.

B. Ji, X. Luo, R. Arndt, X. Peng, Y. Wu, Large eddy simulation and theoretical

investigations of the transient cavitating vortical flow structure

around a naca66 hydrofoil, Int J Multiphase Flow 68 (2015) 121.134.

S. Jollet, T. Willeke, F. Dinkelacker, Comparison of various models for

transient nozzle flow simulations including time-resolved needle lift, in:

th Trienn. Int. Conf. Liq. At. Spray Syst., vol. i, Heidelberg, Germany,

, pp. 1.8.

E. Goncalves, R. Patella, Numerical simulation of cavitating flows with

homogeneous models, Comput Fluids 38 (2009) 1682.1696.

P. Sagaut, Large Eddy Simulation for Incompressible Flows, 3rd Edition,

Springer, 2006.

L. Berselli, T. Iliescu,W. Layton, Mathematics of Large Eddy Simulation

of Turbulent Flows, Springer, 2005.

T. Iliescu, Large eddy simulation for turbulent flows, Ph.D. thesis


U. Piomelli, Large-eddy simulation: achievements and challenges,

Prog Aerosp Sci 35 (1999) 335.362.

J. McDonough, ntroductory lectures on turbulence physics, mathematics

and modeling, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics,

University of Kentucky (2004).

P. Jaworski, M. . Zbikowski, Modele les w badaniach numerycznych procesow

spalania w silnikach t.okowych - przegla.d literatury (in polish),

Arch Comb 11 (2011) 111.144.

J. Smagorinsky, General circulation experiments with the primitive

equations, Mon Weather Rev 91 (1963) 99.164.

D. Wilcox, Turbulence modeling for CFD, DCW Industries, Inc, 1998.

A. L. GmbH, Eulerian multiphase. avl fire softw doc. (2013).

H. El-Din, Y.-S. Zhang, M. Elkelawy, A computational study of cavitation

model validity using a new quantitative criterion, Chinese Phys

Lett 29.

C. Brennen, Cavitation and bubble dynamics, Oxford University Press,

N. C.WebBook, [Online] Available: http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/.

[Accessed: 06-Jun-2013].

F. Salvador, J.-V. Romero, M.-D. Rosello, J. Martinez-Lopez, Validation

of a code for modeling cavitation phenomena in diesel injector nozzles,

Math Comput Model 52 (2010) 1123.1132.

F. Salvador, J. Martinez-Lopez, Study of the influence of the needle

lift on the internal flow and cavitation phenomenon in diesel injector

nozzles by cfd using rans methods, Energy Convers Manag 66 (2013)


F. Salvador, J. Martinez-Lopez, J.-V. Romero, M.-D. Rosello, Influence

of biofuels on the internal flow in diesel injector nozzles, Math Comput

Model 54 (2011) 1699.1705.

X. Wang, K. Li, W. Su, Experimental and numerical investigations on

internal flow characteristics of diesel nozzle under real fuel injection

conditions, Exp Therm Fluid Sci 42 (2012) 204.211.

Z. He, W. Zhong, Q.Wang, Z. Jiang, Y. Fu, An investigation of transient

nature of the cavitating flow in injector nozzles, Appl Therm Eng.

Z. He, W. Zhong, Q. Wang, Z. Jiang, Z. Shao, Effect of nozzle geometrical

and dynamic factors on cavitating and turbulent flow in a diesel

multi-hole injector nozzle, Int J Therm Sci 70 (2013) 132.143.

M. Jia, M. Xie, H. Liu, W.-H. Lam, T. Wang, Numerical simulation of

cavitation in the conical-spray nozzle for diesel premixed charge compression

ignition engines, Fuel 90 (2011) 2652.2661.

S. Gopalakrishnan, D. Schmidt, A computational study of flashing flow

in fuel injector nozzles, SAE Int J Engines (2009) 160.170.

Y. Melsem, S. Honnet,W. Schwarz, J. Reveillon, F. Demoulin, Modeling

of cavitating flows in diesel injector nozzles to consider its impact on

the atomization, in: 24th Eur. Conf. Liq. At. Spray Syst., 2011, estoril,



  • There are currently no refbacks.