Investigation exhaust emissions and performance characteristics of a diesel engine by using addition of nanoparticles to diesel fuel

Vali Nozari, Babak Beheshti, Barat Ghobadian, Saied Ali Mohammad Borghei


Users of fossil fuels are facing a range of challenges such as long-term rising demand, climate concerns due to emission of greenhouse gases, ecological pollution, finite reserves and price fluctuations. Diesel fuel is similarly affected, though with its own subset of issues. Studies suggest that diesel fuel characteristics are affected by addition of nanoparticles. In this research, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were blended with pure diesel as an additive at concentrations of 30, 60, and 90 ppm to assess the emission and performance characteristics of a single-cylinder compression combustion engine. The considered emission contents included CO, CO2, HC, and NO produced by an engine at 50% and 100% loads, at 1800, 2300, and 2800 rpm. Addition of CNTs to the diesel fuel considerably reduced the emission of CO, CO2, HC, and NO compared to additive-free diesel fuel. Furthermore, with the addition of carbon nanotubes, the Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) and the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) decreased, while the power and Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) increased at all loads and speeds of the engine.


Carbon Nanotubes, Diesel Fuel, Emission, performance, Engine,

Full Text:



Saxena, V., Kumar, N., and Saxena, V.K. (2017)

A comprehensive review on combustion and stability

aspects of metal nanoparticles and its additive eect

on diesel and biodiesel fuelled C.I. engine. Renewable

and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70, 563{588.

D'Silva, R., Binu, K.G., and Bhat, T. (2015) Performance

and Emission Characteristics of a C.I. Engine

Fuelled with Diesel and TiO2 Nanoparticles as

Fuel Additive. Materials Today: Proceedings, 2 (4-

, 3728{3735.

Celik, M., Solmaz, H., and Yucesu, H.S. (2015) Examination

of the eects of organic based manganese

fuel additive on combustion and engine performance.

Fuel Processing Technology, 139, 100{107.

El-Seesy, A.I., Abdel-Rahman, A.K., Bady, M.,

and Ookawara, S. (2017) Performance combustion,

and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled

by biodiesel-diesel mixtures with multi-walled carbon

nanotubes additives. Energy Conversion and Manage-

ment, 135, 373{393.

Banapurmath, N.R., Sankaran, R., Tumbal, A.V.,

N., N.T., Hunshyal, A.M., and Ayachit, N.H. (2014)

Experimental investigation on direct injection diesel

engine fuelled with graphene silver and multiwalled

carbon nanotubes-biodiesel blended fuels. Interna-

tional Journal of Automotive Engineering and Tech-

nologies, 3 (4), 129.

Lin, C.-Y., and Lin, H.-A. (2007) Engine performance

and emission characteristics of a three-phase

emulsion of biodiesel produced by peroxidation. Fuel

Processing Technology, 88 (1), 35{41.

Gumus, S., Ozcan, H., Ozbey, M., and Topaloglu,

B. (2016) Aluminum oxide and copper oxide nanodiesel

fuel properties and usage in a compression ignition

engine. Fuel, 163, 80{87.

Lenin, M.A., Swaminathan, M.R., and Kumaresan,

G. (2013) Performance and emission characteristics

of a DI diesel engine with a nanofuel additive. Fuel,

, 362{365.

Rashedul, H.K., Kalam, M.A., Masjuki, H.H., Teoh,

Y.H., How, H.G., Monirul, I.M., and Imdadul, H.K.

(2017) Attempts to minimize nitrogen oxide emission

from diesel engine by using antioxidant-treated dieselbiodiesel

blend. Environmental Science and Pollution

Research, 24 (10), 9305{9313.

Basha, J.S., and Anand, R.B. (2011) An experimental

investigation in a diesel engine using carbon

nanotubes blended water{diesel emulsion fuel.

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engi-

neers Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 225 (3),


Raja, B., Praveenkumar, N., Professor, A., K S,

D.A., PERIYASAMY, S., Professor, and Babu, K.

(2015) Study on Characteristics of CI Engine Using

Nano Additive Blended Diesel Fuel. Interna-

tional Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 10,


Ozgur, T., Tuccar, G., Uludamar, E., Ylmaz, A.,

Gungor, C., Ozcanli, M., Serin, H., and Aydin, K.

(2015) Eect of nanoparticle additives on NOx emissions

of diesel fuelled compression ignition engine. In-

ternational Journal of Global Warming, 7, 487{498.

Saraee, H.S., Jafarmadar, S., Taghavifar, H., and

Ashra, S.J. (2015) Reduction of emissions and fuel

consumption in a compression ignition engine using

nanoparticles. International Journal of Environmental

Science and Technology, 12 (7), 2245{2252.

Keskin, A., Ocakoglu, K., Aslan Resitoglu,

_Ibrahim, Avsar, G., Emen, F.M., and Buldum, B.

(2015) Using Pd(II) and Ni(II) complexes with N N

-dimethyl- N 0-2-chlorobenzoylthiourea ligand as fuel

additives in diesel engine. Fuel, 162, 202{206.

Shaa, T., and Velraj, R. (2015) In

uence of

alumina nanoparticles ethanol and isopropanol blend

as additive with diesel{soybean biodiesel blend fuel:

Combustion, engine performance and emissions. Re-

newable Energy, 80, 655{663.

Ghafoori, M., Ghobadian, B., Naja, G., Layeghi,

M., Rashidi, A., and Mamat, R. (2015) Eect of

nano-particles on the performance and emission of

a diesel engine using biodiesel-diesel blend. Interna-

tional Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engi-

neering, 12, 3097{3108.

Shaa, T., Sairam, K., Gopinath, A., Kumaresan,

G., and Velraj, R. (2015) Eect of dispersion of

various nanoadditives on the performance and emission

characteristics of a CI engine fuelled with diesel

biodiesel and blends|A review. Renewable and Sus-

tainable Energy Reviews, 49, 563{573.

Mehta, R.N., Chakraborty, M., and Parikh, P.A.

(2014) Nanofuels: Combustion engine performance

and emissions. Fuel, 120, 91{97.

Basha, J.S., and Anand, R.B. (2014) Performance

emission and combustion characteristics of a

diesel engine using Carbon Nanotubes blended Jatropha

Methyl Ester Emulsions. Alexandria Engineer-

ing Journal, 53 (2), 259{273.

Selvan, V.A.M., Anand, R.B., and Udayakumar,

M. (2014) Eect of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles and

Carbon Nanotubes as fuel-borne additives in Diesterol

blends on the performance combustion and emission

characteristics of a variable compression ratio engine.

Fuel, 130, 160{167.

Wamankar, A.K., and Murugan, S. (2015) Combustion

performance and emission of a diesel engine

fuelled with diesel doped with carbon black. Energy,

, 467{475.

Karthikeyan, S., and Prathima, A. (2016)

Characteristics analysis of carbon nanowires

in diesel:Neochloris oleoabundansalgae oil

biodiesel{ethanol blends in a CI engine. Energy

Sources Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environ-

mental Eects, 38 (20), 3089{3094.

Basha, J.S. (2018) Impact of Carbon Nanotubes

and Di-Ethyl Ether as additives with biodiesel emulsion

fuels in a diesel engine { An experimental investigation.

Journal of the Energy Institute, 91 (2),


Gnanasikamani, B. (2015) Eect of CNT as additive

with biodiesel on the performance and emission

characteristics of a DI diesel engine. International

Journal of ChemTech Research, 7, 1230{1236.

Hosseini, S.H., Taghizadeh-Alisaraei, A., Ghobadian,

B., and Abbaszadeh-Mayvan, A. (2017) Performance

and emission characteristics of a CI engine

fuelled with carbon nanotubes and diesel-biodiesel

blends. Renewable Energy, 111, 201{213.


  • There are currently no refbacks.