Coordination Strategy for Digital  Frequency Relays and Energy Storage in a Low-Inertia Microgrid

Sayed M. Said, Emad A. Mohamed, Bálint Hartmann, Yasunori Mitani


Abstract Recently, dynamic frequency stability problems have started to arise in microgrid systems with the increasing utilization of low inertia and intermittent renewable energy sources. This leads to limiting the maximum penetration of renewable sources in microgrids. In order to solve this problem and increase the penetration of renewable sources, the dynamic frequency controller of the microgrid should be enhanced. Therefore, this paper will provide virtual inertia response of superconducting magnetic energy storage coordinated with the load frequency control depending on a new optimal proportional-integral-derivative controller-based advanced swarm intelligence technique, named Moth Swarm Algorithm (MSA). Moreover, the proposed inertia control strategy is coordinated with digital frequency relay to enhance dynamic frequency stability and maintain microgrid dynamic security at high penetration levels of renewable sources and radical load change. To attest the superiority of the proposed technique, it has been examined using MATLAB/SIMULINK, considering different contingency cases and varying the inertia level of the studied microgrid. The results stated that the proposed coordination can effectively regulate microgrid frequency and maintain dynamic stability and security.


digital protection; load frequency control; low-inertia microgrid; superconducting magnetic energy storage

Full Text:



Hassan Bevrani, Masayuki Watanabe, and Yasunori Mitani, editors.

Power System Monitoring and Control. John Wiley & Sons Inc., may

Thomas Ackermann, editor. Wind Power in Power Systems. John

Wiley & Sons Ltd, jan 2005.

Petros Aristidou, Gustavo Valverde, and Thierry Van Cutsem. Contribution

of Distribution Network Control to Voltage Stability: A Case

Study. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 8(1):106–116, jan 2017.

Jingjing Zhao, Xue Lyu, Yang Fu, Xiaoguang Hu, and Fangxing Li.

Coordinated Microgrid Frequency Regulation Based on DFIG Variable

Coefficient Using Virtual Inertia and Primary Frequency Control. IEEE

Transactions on Energy Conversion, 31(3):833–845, sep 2016.

Salvatore D’Arco, Jon Are Suul, and Olav B. Fosso. Small-signal modeling

and parametric sensitivity of a virtual synchronous machine in

islanded operation. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy

Systems, 72:3–15, nov 2015.

Ujjwol Tamrakar, Dipesh Shrestha, Manisha Maharjan, Bishnu Bhattarai,

Timothy Hansen, and Reinaldo Tonkoski. Virtual Inertia: Current

Trends and Future Directions. Applied Sciences, 7(7):654, jun 2017.

Jia Liu, Yushi Miura, and Toshifumi Ise. Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics

Between Virtual Synchronous Generator and Droop Control

in Inverter-Based Distributed Generators. IEEE Transactions on Power

Electronics, 31(5):3600–3611, may 2016.

Thongchart Kerdphol, Fathin Rahman, Yasunori Mitani, Komsan

Hongesombut, and Sinan Küfeo˘ glu. Virtual Inertia Control-Based

Model Predictive Control for Microgrid Frequency Stabilization Considering

High Renewable Energy Integration. Sustainability, 9(5):773,

may 2017.

Ruifeng Yan and Tapan Kumar Saha. Frequency response estimation

method for high wind penetration considering wind turbine frequency

support functions. IET Renewable Power Generation, 9(7):775–782,

sep 2015.

Konstantina Mentesidi, Raquel Garde, Monica Aguado, and Evangelos

Rikos. Implementation of a fuzzy logic controller for virtual inertia emulation.

In 2015 International Symposium on Smart Electric Distribution

Systems and Technologies (EDST). IEEE, sep 2015.

Yalong Hu, Wei Wei, Yonggang Peng, and Jinyong Lei. Fuzzy virtual

inertia control for virtual synchronous generator. In 2016 35th Chinese

Control Conference (CCC). IEEE, jul 2016.

Miguel A. Torres L., Luiz A. C. Lopes, Luis A. Moran T., and Jose

R. Espinoza C. Self-Tuning Virtual Synchronous Machine: A Control

Strategy for Energy Storage Systems to Support Dynamic Frequency

Control. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 29(4):833–840,

dec 2014.

Anamika Yadav Bokka Krishna Chaitanya, Atul Kumar Soni. Communication

Assisted Fuzzy based Adaptive Protective Relaying Scheme

for Microgrid. Journal of Power Technologies, 98, 2018.

Hassan Bevrani. Robust PI-Based Frequency Control. In Robust

Power System Frequency Control, pages 71–104. Springer International

Publishing, 2014.

Sergio Vazquez, Srdjan M. Lukic, Eduardo Galvan, Leopoldo G. Franquelo,

and Juan M. Carrasco. Energy Storage Systems for Transport

and Grid Applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,

(12):3881–3895, dec 2010.

Andreas Poullikkas Pavlos Nikolaidis. A comparative review of electrical

energy storage systems for better sustainability. Journal of Power

Technologies, 97 No 3, 2017.

Wei Li and Geza Joos. Comparison of Energy Storage System Technologies

and Configurations in a Wind Farm. In 2007 IEEE Power

Electronics Specialists Conference. IEEE, 2007.

Abraham Ellis, David Schoenwald, Jon Hawkins, Steve Willard, and

Brian Arellano. PV output smoothing with energy storage. In 2012

th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. IEEE, jun 2012.

Ujjwol Tamrakar, David Galipeau, Reinaldo Tonkoski, and Indraman

Tamrakar. Improving transient stability of photovoltaic-hydro microgrids

using virtual synchronous machines. In 2015 IEEE Eindhoven

PowerTech. IEEE, jun 2015.

Ming Ding and JieWu. A Novel Control Strategy of Hybrid Energy Storage

System for Wind Power Smoothing. Electric Power Components

and Systems, 45(12):1265–1274, jul 2017.

Jie Dang, John Seuss, Luv Suneja, and Ronald G. Harley. SoC Feedback

Control for Wind and ESS Hybrid Power System Frequency Regulation.

IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics,

(1):79–86, mar 2014.

Jun Yeong Yun, Garam Yu, Kyung Soo Kook, Do Hwan Rho, and

Byung Hoon Chang. SOC-based Control Strategy of Battery Energy

Storage System for Power System Frequency Regulation. The Transactions

of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, 63 No 5, 2014.

Accessed on Mon, September 23, 2019.

Marcelo G. Molina, Pedro E. Mercado, and Edson H. Watanabe.

Static synchronous compensator with superconducting magnetic energy

storage for high power utility applications. Energy Conversion

and Management, 48(8):2316–2331, aug 2007.

T. Kinjo, T. Senjyu, N. Urasaki, and H. Fujita. Terminal-voltage and

output-power regulation of wind-turbine generator by series and parallel

compensation using SMES. IEE Proceedings - Generation Transmission

and Distribution, 153(3):276, 2006.

Praghnesh Bhatt, S.P. Ghoshal, and Ranjit Roy. Coordinated control

of TCPS and SMES for frequency regulation of interconnected restructured

power systems with dynamic participation from DFIG based wind

farm. Renewable Energy, 40(1):40–50, apr 2012.

M. Abdel-Akher Sayed M. Said, Mohamed M. Aly. Application of

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) to Improve Transient

Stability of Multi-Machine System with Wind Power Penetration.

In 16th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON),

Cairo, Egypt, 2014, pp. 1-6., 2014.

Mohamed M. Aly, Mamdouh Abdel-Akher, Sayed M. Said, and

Tomonobu Senjyu. A developed control strategy for mitigating wind

power generation transients using superconducting magnetic energy

storage with reactive power support. International Journal of Electrical

Power & Energy Systems, 83:485–494, dec 2016.

Emad A. Mohamed, E. Gouda, and Yasunori Mitani. Impact of SMES

integration on the digital frequency relay operation considering High

PV/Wind penetration in micro-grid. Energy Procedia, 157:1292–1304,

jan 2019.

J.A. Laghari, H. Mokhlis, A.H.A. Bakar, and Hasmaini Mohamad. Application

of computational intelligence techniques for load shedding

in power systems: A review. Energy Conversion and Management,

:130–140, nov 2013.

Hamdy Ahmed Ashour Ayatte Ibrahim Atteya, Amani Mohamed

El Zonkoly. Adaptive protection scheme for optimally coordinated relay

setting using modified PSO algorithm. Journal of Power Technologies,

No 5, pp. 463–469., 2017.

Naowarat Tephiruk, Komsan Hongesombut, Yuthasak Urathamakul,

Sirivat Poonvasin, and Sanee Tangsatit. Modeling of rate of change

of under frequency relay for microgrid protection. In 2017 International

Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON). IEEE, mar 2017.

W. Freitas, W. Xu, C.M. Affonso, and Z. Huang. Comparative Analysis

Between ROCOF and Vector Surge Relays for Distributed Generation

Applications. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 20(2):1315–1324,

apr 2005.

J.C.M. Vieira, W. Freitas, W. Xu, and A. Morelato. Efficient Coordination

of ROCOF and Frequency Relays for Distributed Generation Protection

by Using the Application Region. IEEE Transactions on Power

Delivery, 21(4):1878–1884, oct 2006.

Gaber Magdy, Emad A. Mohamed, G. Shabib, Adel A. Elbaset, and Yasunori

Mitani. SMES based a new PID controller for frequency stability

of a real hybrid power system considering high wind power penetration.

IET Renewable Power Generation, 12(11):1304–1313, aug 2018.

Shailendra Singh, Rohit Kumar Verma, Ashish Kumar Shakya, and

Satyendra Pratap Singh. Frequency Regulation of Micro-grid Connected

Hybrid Power System with SMES. Technology and Economics

of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy, 2(1), jul 2017.

Emad Mohamed Younis, Mohamed Al-Attar, Thongchart Kerdphol, and

Yasunori Mitani. Optimization of Reactive Compensation in Distribution

Networks Based on Moth Swarm Intelligence for Multi-Load Levels.

International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 12(4):342, aug

Emad A. Mohamed, Gaber Magdy, Gaber Shabib, Adel A. Elbaset,

and Yasunori Mitani. Digital coordination strategy of protection and

frequency stability for an islanded microgrid. IET Generation Transmission

& Distribution, 12(15):3637–3646, aug 2018.


  • There are currently no refbacks.