A Review of the Behavior of Fuel Drops in a Fuel Spray in the Context of Biofuels

Riho Kägo, Risto Ilves, Arne Küüt, Jüri Olt


In addition to gasoline and diesel fuel, the biofuels HVO and FAME have been taken into wide use during the last decades.
The properties of gasoline and diesel fuel and their effect on the combustion process have been studied for a long time, but
studies on HVO and FAME are still are very much work-in-progress. Existing studies show that the use of biodiesels reduces
the level of several exhaust gas emissions (like soot) in engine exhaust gases. At the same time, the reasons for the reduction
of emission compounds remain unclear. The motivation behind determining drop size and behavior is to aid assessment of
the quality of the air-fuel mixture with a view to explaining the reduction in soot emission when biodiesels are used. The aim
of this review paper is to provide an overview of the behavior of fuel drops and their size in fuel injectors when using different
biofuels by giving a theoretical background based on literature, on the basis of which the calculations give an opportunity to
evaluate experimental results of the behavior of different biofuels in the fuel spray. This study compares four different fuel
types according to the WAVE-RT model. In addition, the collision mechanisms of drops (reflexive and stretching separation)
are presented and these shall be compared for the fuel types. The results show that during the use of biofuels, the drop size
is somewhat larger compared to diesel fuel.


biodiesel, fuel drop size, FAME, HVO, diesel engine

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